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This clearly left potential for variability, which Faurbye and colleagues addressed by suggesting at least 6 months of antipsychotic exposure as a time criterion (Faurbye Reference Faurbye, Rasch and Peterson1964).

However, they were also complex and, as Faurbye et al pointed out, coordinated. These were not in themselves abnormal movements but seemed appropriate oromandibular behaviours that lacked context, such as eating.

This argument is too far-reaching to present here (for discussion see Owens Reference Owens2014) but while schizophrenia can itself be associated with motor disorder, the significance to those on antidopaminergics remains unclear. Neither, however, does this distract from the undoubted validity of tardive dyskinesia indications contraindications a syndrome construct.

In essence, tardive dyskinesia is what clinicians and authors believe it to be (Owens Reference Owens2014). This is not to be over-cynical.

Tardive dyskinesia is any hyperkinetic motor disorder (except tremor) in which drugs, especially although not exclusively antidopaminergics, are believed to play a causative role. Traditionally, tardive dyskinesia has been a blanket term encompassing Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum range of hyperkinetic disorders, except tremor (Box 1).

Tardive dyskinesia can affect any voluntary muscle and an elementary but important point is that, as a syndrome, can create kaleidoscopic presentations from diverse constituents (Table 1). The sheer range and combinations of movement types contribute greatly to confusion inherent Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum categorisation and diagnosis.

Source: Owens (Reference Owens2014). Clinically, distribution is an invaluable aid to diagnosis (Fig. Clinical experience suggests this, too, may comprise different components. FIG 2 Prevalences of movement disorders in different body regions at different severity scores on the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) (Owens Reference Owens, Johnstone and Frith1982).

Disorder has always been thought of as starting with the tongue, although this has never been confirmed. The author has certainly seen patients in whom other movements were gross but tongue abnormality minimal or absent.

These early signs are usually described as vermicular (worm-like) and in the tongue. The structure itself, however, is not strikingly displaced, remaining within the floor of the mouth. Triheptanoin Oral Liquid (Dojolvi)- FDA forced jaw closure, bruxism, lateral jaw deviation and a range of lip movements, including puckering, pouting, smacking and bridling (retraction of the angles of the mouth), with or without accompanying sounds, complete a characteristic Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum. Some of this activity seems choreoathetoid and authentically involuntary.

However, in the more extravagant activity, such as buccal sweeping and chewing, we see the basis of complex behaviours, where intra-oral activity is coordinated with lips and jaws. Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum, such a distinction could explain why patients frequently seem unaware of often disfiguring disorder. In the author's experience, patients with dominant independent tongue activity are very poorly Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum of what is Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum annoying and, because of local irritation, Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum uncomfortable, whereas those with complex oromandibular activity which, because it is coordinated does not isolate the tongue or subject it to injury (although it may stimulate hypertrophy), are more likely to be indifferent.

Breaking down motor disorders phenomenologically has merit in demonstrating the rich disorder tardive dyskinesia presents but does introduce an element of artificiality. Forced tongue protrusion clearly requires the Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum, and in those with teeth the jaws, to part. So, when are these separate components or part of a package.

Many such examples arise when Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum with multi-item, as opposed to global impression, rating scales (Owens Reference Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum. Tics may rarely affect the upper face but more commonly movements here are choreiform or dystonic and genuinely involuntary. Involvement of eyelids, periocular and temporal musculature gives rise to blepharoclonus, partial or Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum blepharospasm, frowning, furrowing, grimacing, etc.

Marked upper face involvement produces especially disfiguring disorder. Involvement of the upper limb girdle produces irregular shoulder shrugging or rotations, and of pelvic musculature, so-called copulatory movements.

Famotidine (Zantac)- Multum may likewise rotate, with intermittent, sustained rotational movements of ankles and out-splaying of toes. The lateral truncal leans, usually associated with slight rotation, of Pisa (or Ekbom) syndrome are rare as the sole abnormality but can seriously impede mobility.

Peripheral disorder centred on lower limbs can be hard to distinguish from tardive akathisia.

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